Le CEA-Genoscope organise un séminaire sur le thème suivant :
"Metagenomics of microbial dechlorinating consortia"

Le lundi 20 novembre 2017, à 11h30

Lieu :

CEA-Genoscope
2 rue Gaston Crémieux - 91000 Evry
qui aura lieu en salle Jacob - RDC (G1) :

Intervenant :

Elizabeth A. Edwards, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry
Director, BioZone - University of Toronto

Invitée par Denis Le Paslier

Résumé :

Groundwater contamination is a serious threat to global health and
prosperity. Petroleum hydrocarbons, industrial solvents, pesticides and
metals are some of the most frequent culprits. Some microbes have
evolved and adapted to transform or detoxify contaminants in the
environment. Chlorinated solvents such a trichloroethene and
tetrachloroethene are widely used as industrial degreasers, dry-cleaning
agents and precursors in chemical synthesis – and thus very common
groundwater contaminants. Owing to their toxicity, even small spills
render groundwater unsuitable for use, and cleanup is typically a costly
and long-term undertaking. A fascinating group of subsurface
microorganisms, collectively referred to as organohalide-respiring
bacteria, are significant players in the global halogen cycle. Certain
species, such as Dehalococcoides, can dechlorinate the major
dry-cleaning solvent tetrachloroethene and the common industrial solvent
trichloroethene to the benign product ethene. Remarkably, these
organisms obtain energy for growth from dechlorination and several
successful demonstrations of bioaugmentation, where an aquifer is
inoculated with culture, have lead to the development of a commercial
market for such dechlorinating cultures. Through metagenome
investigations in our own lab and elsewhere, we are shedding light on
these dynamics and function of these remarkable, ubiquitous, microbial
communities.